For the administration of urban areas, Bihar has 12 municipal corporations, 49 nagar parishads(city councils), and 80 nagar panchayats (town councils). There are many other political formations. In 1964 Bihar School of Yoga was established at Munger.[relevant?  The Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(M) and CPM and All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) have a minor presence, along with the other extreme leftist parties. It is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. Smaller communities of Bengali and Santali speakers are found in the eastern districts of the state.  The official languages are Hindi and Urdu, although other languages are common, including Maithili, Magahi, Bhojpuri and other Bihari languages. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word, later known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km (43 mi) away from Bodh Gaya.. This school of painting formed the basis for the formation of the Patna Art School under the leadership of Shri Radha Mohan. The Ganges is navigable throughout the year, and was the principal river highway across the vast Indo-Gangetic Plain. Bihar has the Central Institute of Plastic Engineering & Technology (CIPET) and the Institute of Hotel Management (a central government unit) in Hajipur. In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. BIT Mesra started its Patna extension centre in September 2006. Bihar has reserved forest area of 6,845 km2 (2,643 sq mi), which is 7.27% of its geographical area. After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer and collect tax revenue) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha.  The sub-Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district have belts of moist deciduous forests, mixed with shrubs, grass and reeds. , During the 19th century, many Biharis emigrated as indentured labourers to the West Indies, Fiji, and Mauritius.  Urdu is the second official language in 15 districts of the state.  The head of the bureaucracy of the state is the chief secretary, under whom a hierarchy of officials is drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Forest Service, and different wings of the state civil services.  Several other commercially successful films followed, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry", 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy", 2005). The literary activity was not confined to Patna alone but to other districts of Bihar..  Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state. Its origin can be traced to 1886, with the establishment of a survey training school, subsequently renamed Bihar College of Engineering in 1932. 22, Issue 2, pp. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign imperialists, particularly the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. – discuss], Prior to prohibition, Bihar emerged as a brewery hub with numerous production units. After listening to bandishes from Kumar Sahib, Pandit Jasraj was moved to tears and lamented that, alas, he did not have such ability himself." In 2010 Government of Bihar established Bihar Agricultural University at Sabour in Bhagalpur district. , In the past, tourism in the region was purely based on educational tourism, as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda and Vikramashila.[relevant?  Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar across the rest of India, culminating in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, where Saraswati was elected as its first president.
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