EPPO, 2016. Ranada, P., 2014. Female flowers are followed by single-seeded coconuts (to 14" long). World Checklist of Arecaceae. Each coconut has a fibrous husk which surrounds a woody shell containing the coconut meat, milk and oil which are used in numerous food products around the world. This ‘tree of life’ can protect, heal and feed; if you ever find yourself stranded on a desert island, the coconut palm may be all you need. There are many cultivated varieties (cultivars) of coconut palm: some dwarf varieties and some tall varieties which bear different types of coconuts. North American Nut trees. India Biodiversity, 2014. In the IUCN Red List this species is placed in the category: Not Evaluated – has not yet been evaluated against the IUCN Red List Criteria. Philippine Journal of Coconut Studies, 17(1):June 1992. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Plants, Agriculture and Human Society. C. nucifera is a palm tree with a great capacity for natural dispersal. Woodroof JG, 1979. Milk of young coconut is diuretic, laxative and antidiarrheal. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. Elzebroek, T., Wind, K., 2008. Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of well-being and wealth is often portrayed holding a coconut. The fruit consists of (from the outside to in) a thin hard skin (exocarp), a thicker layer of fibrous mesocarp (husk), the hard endocarp (shell), the white endosperm (kernel), and a large cavity filled with watery liquid (coconut water or milk). Growth can be slowed down, but the size of new leaves and roots has been fixed a long time in advance and cannot be adjusted to short-term stress periods. The female flowers are larger than the male flowers, and both are found on the same inflorescence. When the coconut shell is separated from the husk and heated, it releases an oily substance that is used to soothe dental pains. Position Paper presented during the Planning Workshop for Asia on Forest Research and Technology Transfer held July 16-28, 1984 at Kardy, Sri Lanka. The palm heart, which consists of the white, tender tissues of the youngest, unopened leaves at the stem apex, is also considered a delicacy. Coconut milk or cream pressed from the mix of freshly grated endosperm has been a traditional ingredient in many African and especially Asian food and bakery products. PCA-ARDB Annual Report, 77-78. 2.1. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. A selection., 322, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Planted in plantations as overhead shade tree, One of the most wind tolerant plants in the world, Coconut kernel, coconut cream, coconut water, heart of the palm, Stems are used for poles, sawn timber, roofing shingles, handcraft and furniture, Nuts can survive up to 120 days floating in the sea, Highly adaptable to different environments, Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, Benefits from human association (i.e. Coconut Bull., 3(3):13-15. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp, USDA-NRCS, 2014. Cocos nucifera L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Cocos (family Arecaceae). C. nucifera palms are unbranched, monoecious trees with smooth, columnar, light grey-brown trunk, usually 9-18 m height and sometimes taller (up to 30 m); dwarf selections also exist. Naturalized exotic tree species in Puerto Rico. In prehistoric times, wild forms of C. nucifera are believed to have been carried on oceanic currents to islands in the Pacific (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia) and to coastal India, Sri Lanka, and islands in the India Ocean (i.e., Seychelles, Andaman, and Mauritius). Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. The use of biotechnology for the safe movement of coconut germplasm, In: Oropeza C, Verdeil JL, Ashburner GR, Cardeña R, Santamaría JM, eds. Plant resources of South-East Asia. http://www.fleppc.org/list/2013/index.htm. Online Database. Book a timeslot to Kew Gardens or Wakehurst before you come. Preservative treatment of the sawn lumber is indispensable if it is to be used for building construction or any outdoor use. nana (Griff.) by Elevitch CR]. The Coconut Palm. In addition to its great dispersal ability, C. nucifera has high germination rates, and nuts have no dormancy and do not require special treatments to germinate, which are also elements facilitating its establishment and spread into new habitats (Duke, 1983; Chan and Elevitch, 2006). Current advances in coconut biotechnology:259-264. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Resistant varieties are being developed. For good nut yields, a minimum monthly mean of 20°C is required. Green husks (mesocarp) are used for making ropes, carpets, mats and textiles. Tall palms produce about 10 leaves during the first year, dwarf palms about 14. Water in the cavity of young coconuts is consumed as a cool and sweet-tasting, popular refreshment. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, impacts forest composition and soil characteristics at Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. Its flowers grow in clusters on a stem; a flowering structure known as an inflorescence. Handbook of Energy Crops. Its flowers grow in clusters on a stem; a flowering structure known as an inflorescence. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Science. A., Saber, S. M., 1993. Since a leaf of a tall palm remains on the tree about 2.5 years after unfolding, the leaf number in the crown levels off at 30-35 after 6 or 7 years. In: World Checklist of Arecaceae, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Filamentous fungi and mycotoxin detected in coconut., Zentralblatt fÃ¼r Mikrobiologie, 148(5):325-332, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Plant Name Scientific Name: Cocos nucifera Common Names: Coconut Palm, Niu Plant Characteristics Duration: Perennial, Evergreen Growth Habit: Tree Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. ), 1988. Humans have also actively introduced large numbers of coconut palms inland from the natural coastal habitat of the species, and nuts (fruits) can move up to 10 m from the mother tree when growing inland. Field guide to the palms of the Americas. Los Banos, Philippines: University of the Philippines. Merill ED, 1912. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Coconut palm contains tall cultivars, sometimes referred to as var. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. Chan E, Elevitch CR, 2006. World Wide Web page at http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html. The Philippine Recommends for Coconut. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. In India, the coconut forms the basis of some Hindu rituals. Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list, Leitman P, Henderson A, Noblick L, Soares K, 2014. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Lethal yellowing is a serious disease which has killed thousands of coconut palms in Florida. In coastal areas where C. nucifera becomes dominant, it has been suggested that this species may have negative impacts on floristic, structural and soil characteristics of coastal native forests (Kairo et al., 2003; Young et al., 2010; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). The annual sunlight requirement is estimated at above 2000 hours, with maybe a lower limit of 120 hours per month. Speaking of coconut. The fibre from the husk is used in ropes, mats, doormats, brooms and sacks, and the coconut shells are sometimes used as bowls. The species tolerates saline and infertile soils as well as salt-spray conditions (Chan and Elevitch, 2006; Orwa et al., 2009). 4 provinces to be put under quarantine vs coconut pest http://www.rappler.com/science-nature/53368-quarantine-philippines-coconut-insect Rappler, Science & Nature, Stevens PF, 2012. Moistero AP, 1978. Alpuerto JV, 1979. The leaves of the coconut palm are woven to make baskets and mats and are sometimes used in roofing. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html. Utilization of coconut palm timber: its economic significance in some countries in Tropics. Gallego VC, San Juan NC, Gallego CE, Concibido EC, Aterrado ED, 1987. Tech. For example, in the coastal forest of the Palmyra Atoll in the Northern Pacific, the high abundance of coconut plants has been associated with lower diversity of native plants and regenerating understory, lower abundance of major macronutrients and lower energy content of soil organic matter (Young et al., 2010). 2. The endosperm is soft and jellylike when immature but becomes firm with maturity. Where is this species invasive in the US. Find help & information on Cocos nucifera (F) coconut from the RHS Where are Plant Finder & Plant Selector? Manila, Philippines: US Peace Corps. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Science. Occasional Papers 16, No. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/downloads/nprg-o_rhinoceros.pdf, USDA-ARS, 2014. The nuts have the capability to survive up to 120 days floating in the sea water and germinate when they make landfall. It is now also marketed in pasteurized and homogenized canned or powdered form. Remnant fatty acids and alcohols and their methyl esters find application as components of emulsifiers and surfactants. Chan E, Elevitch CR, 2006. It has been commonly planted in frost free tropical areas throughout the world in a variety of conspicuous locations including coastal areas, beaches, parks, along streets, residential yards, near commercial buildings/hotels, and on golf courses. Opinions about the origin of the dwarf differ. Diseases of the Coconut in the Philippines and their control. Coconut – physiological disorders – minor nutrients. Proceedings of an International Workshop held Nov. 2-5, 1987 in Pattaya, Thailand. © Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Harries HC, 1991. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014), http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://www.anaphylaxis.org.uk/knowledgebase/coconut/ Farnborough, UK, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html. Coconut oil and milk are often found in soaps, body lotions, hair oils and cosmetics as they are very moisturising for the hair and skin. Brown coir from husks of mature fruits is used in brushes (long bristle fibres), mattresses, upholstery and particle board (short fibres), and as a soil/potting mix amendment. C. nucifera spreads only by seeds. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013. ; 2 ref. Gebruik gedistilleerd water of regenwater World Checklist of Arecaceae. Coconut oil is used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps and margarine. The PLANTS Database. The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding). Browse our range of products. Proceedings of the First African Coconut Seminar, 4-8 February 1991, Arusha/Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Paris, France; BuroTrop, 77-81. Westport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing Co. Young HS, Raab TK, McCauley DJ, Briggs AA, Dirzo R, 2010. During this period, large coconut plantations were established in European colonies around the world including India, the Philippines, Tanzania, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu and Samoa (Duke, 1983; Chan and Elevitch, 2006; PROTA, 2014). Viability of coconut seeds after floating in the sea. Coastal lowlands of the tropics. Under adverse conditions only flowering and fruiting pass through a series of phases during which the commitments can be adjusted downwards: reduced nut size and filling, premature nut fall, reduced fruit set, fewer pistillate flowers, smaller inflorescences and aborted inflorescences.
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