The new emperor invaded Italy, where he reached Calabria without meeting much resistance. Henry confirmed his submission, but Frederick was nevertheless compelled to confirm the Statutum at Cividale soon afterwards. , Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, and she established herself as regent. King of Sicily from 1197, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1215 to 1250, Frederick II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Works by and about Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Frederick_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor&oldid=985825756, People excommunicated by the Catholic Church, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with disputed statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles needing additional references from March 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with failed verification from August 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. David Attenborough in "Natural Curiosities" notes that Frederick fully understood the migration of some birds at a time when all sorts of now improbable theories were common. , Frederick had a great thirst for knowledge and learning. Frederick inherited German, Norman, and Sicilian blood, but by training, lifestyle, and temperament he was "most of all Sicilian." 1179 – d. 23 June 1222). As the Patriarch of Jerusalem refused to crown him king, he set the crown on his own head. Manfred received the principality of Taranto and the government of the Kingdom, Henry the Kingdom of Arles or that of Jerusalem, while the son of Henry VII was entrusted with the Duchy of Austria and the March of Styria. The poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language. Unknown name, Sicilian Countess. But Otto's decisive military defeat at the Bouvines forced him to withdraw to the Guelph hereditary lands where, virtually without supporters, he died in 1218. Frederick then attempted to show that the war was not directed against the Church of Rome but against the Pope by withdrawing his troops and freeing two cardinals from prison in Capua. Negotiations began in the summer of 1243, but the situation changed as Viterbo rebelled, instigated by the intriguing local cardinal Ranieri Capocci. Though the medieval Roman Empire was at the height of its strength, the emperor’s death brought it close to dissolution. As the Holy Roman Empire seemed now the target of the Mongols, Frederick II sent letters to Henry III of England and Louis IX of France in order to organise a crusade against the Mongol Empire.
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