In E, Moses is a strong forceful leader, in J he is diminished and fearful. Fourth, the Jewish literary heritage is muddled. clear 44—the name Israel appears four times. He has written many books focusing on his reconstruction of the redaction history of Genesis through Kings. In J, however, Jacob is always afraid: he fears his father (Gen 27:11-12), he fears Esau (32:8), and he fears the Canaanites (34:30). Tal Ilan identifies Jacob as the 15th most popular name in Palestine in antiquity, with 18 known persons carrying it. info), Tiberian: Yaʿăqōḇ; Arabic: يَعْقُوب Yaʿqūb, Greek: Ἰακώβ, Iakṓb),  later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites and so is an important figure in Abrahamic religions, such as … How?  In the case of Jacob vs. Israel, perhaps J wished to de-emphasize the significance of this third patriarch, after whom the entire nation, “Israel” was named. Something went wrong while submitting the form. Oops! Thus, Abraham ibn Ezra (35:10) writes [bold added]: This solution, which is also preferred by R. Joseph Bekhor Shor (12th cent. In E, Abraham sacrifices his son Isaac when the latter was a child, ending the line of Abraham; Jacob in E is not related to Abraham. 33) or in the Bethel story (ch. The beginning of Chapter 46 is the only revelation in the Joseph story cycle, and as such is important not only to E, but also to J, who decided to emphasize his name for the patriarch at this opportune moment. But for J, Abraham, the patriarch of the south, was the most important ancestor. Jacob Is Renamed Israel (Twice): Why Does the Name Jacob Remain? And yet, even after these renaming episodes, the patriarch is still referred to as Jacob in E, J, and P texts. Rabbi Tzemah Yoreh has a PhD in Bible from Hebrew University, as well as a PhD in Wisdom Literature of the Hellenistic period from the University of Toronto. What is the best way to fold a fitted sheet? The source of the second renaming, in ch.  For an analysis of the plagues and the exodus from Egypt according to my supplementary approach, see my, “The Three Redactional and Theological Layers of the Plagues.”,  For example, at the beginning of Chapter 37. – Critical scholars have long argued that each of these name changes derives from different sources. In contrast, J uses the name Jacob in the Joseph cycle (ch.  One stark difference between these sources is the place of Judah in the narrative. When did organ music become associated with baseball? group Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael on Exodus (Masekhta de-Pascha16), likely playing off the word “another” (×¢××): Genesis Rabbah (78) actually records a debate about the exact the relationship between these two names: This solution is elegant, but unfortunately does not comport with what the text says: The texts in Genesis 32 and 35 never say or imply that Israel is an extra name; they both state clearly that the name Jacob is replaced by Israel.  Although many versions of the SH exist in biblical scholarship, this is the model to which I subscribe. Magic Baby Names is a unique search site with 101,146 names collected from 2,514,419 family trees, containing 124,153,050 people.  For E, Jacob/Israel is the most important patriarch.  This is analogous to how Moses is described in E and transformed by J. Please consider supporting TheTorah.com. Simply enter names you like and let this genius technology inspire you to find the perfect name. He is currently the leader of the City Congregation for Humanistic Judaism in New York. A little later on, when Jacob arrives in Bethel, he is again named Israel: The passage here is strange since it makes no reference to the previous renaming, implying that this story is either unaware of or deliberately ignoring the naming tradition preserved at the end of Genesis 32. See my “How the Israelite Family Was Put Together,” for details. How did Eli Whitney change things socially? The different usages of the names Jacob and Israel reflect a geographic divide between the northern and southern kingdoms’ stance toward this patriarch. Where is Martha Elliott Bill Elliott ex-wife today? How the Israelite Family Was Put Together: The Twelve Sons of Jacob, The Three Redactional and Theological Layers of the Plagues, Israel’s Departure from Egypt: A Liberation or an Escape?”, Speculating about the Original Text of the Decalogue,”, “Jacob’s Multiple Death Scenes: Bringing Parashat Vayechi to Life,”, “How the Israelite Family Was Put Together,”, “Israel’s History as a Family Narrative,”, “The Three Redactional and Theological Layers of the Plagues.”. Keep in mind that many names may have different meanings in other countries and languages, so be careful that the name that you choose doesn’t mean something bad or unpleasant. What was nasdaq index close on December 31 2007? Esau’s protest is a reflection of the negative light J shines on Jacob, which contrasts with E’s positive portrayal of this patriarch evident in the renaming account of Genesis 32. And yet the style and details of v. 28 suggest that it is also a late insertion by the redactor of the Pentateuch, supplementing the originally Elohistic vv. 3 Including both the Eastern and Western Diasporas, Jacob was the third most popular Jewish name, with 74 occurrences. This process began with J, the first southern supplementer, but since all later sources were southern, this pattern persisted among later authors as well. https://thetorah.com/article/jacob-is-renamed-israel-twice-why-does-the-name-jacob-remain. Did the Jonas Brothers Co-Write Get Back by Demi Lovato? Moreover, YHWH leads the Israelites out of Egypt, YHWH parts the Sea, and Joshua conquers Canaan only with the help of YHWH. Magic Baby Names is a unique search site with 101,310 names collected from 2,539,357 family trees, containing 125,384,394 people. Thus, Rashi (32:29) writes: Rashi is building here on a midrashic reading of Isaiah 44:26 in Genesis Rabbah (78). What is the dispersion medium of mayonnaise? J’s insistence on using this name, with its negative connotations, and not the more positive “Israel,” should be seen as a way of J’s lowering the position of Jacob as the key patriarch in favor of Abraham. , Since J’s Jacob is weak and fearful, it simply did not seem appropriate to use E’s name which implies strength and decisiveness.  This is evident from the use of the word Elohim in the explanation of the name, which is the standard name for God in this source, as opposed to in J, which uses YHWH. First, when Jacob is born, J states: Even more negative is Esau’s understanding of the name in the story in which Jacob steals Esau’s blessing: This is not simply an etymology. script>, A Journey Through Previous Paradigm Shifts. And thus, in his supplements (described in an earlier fn), Judah speaks to his father Israel, which never happens in a J text. The Supplementary Hypothesis (SH), however—according to which the Pentateuch began with one original text (E) and was expanded by successive additions (J, then P, etc. E uses the name Jacob consistently throughout the Jacob cycle and made the switch to Israel permanent only in the Joseph cycle (Genesis 37-50).  For example, in chapter 48, Joseph meets his father again for the first time: The name Elohim (God) as opposed to YHWH marks this text as Elohistic, and here the third patriarch is referred to only as Israel.. Yoreh has taught at Ben Gurion University and American Jewish University. For some examples of my SH model at work, see my, “How the Israelite Family Was Put Together: The Twelve Sons of Jacob,“TheTorah.com (2017); “The Three Redactional and Theological Layers of the Plagues,” TheTorah.com (2016); “Israel’s Departure from Egypt: A Liberation or an Escape?”TheTorah.com (2016); “Speculating about the Original Text of the Decalogue,” TheTorah.com (2015); “The Sacrifice of Isaac in Context,” TheTorah.com (2014); “Noah’s Four Sons,”TheTorah.com (2014). In E, Jacob is a strong and virile character. In chapter 43 (especially verses 6-14)—a clearly a pro-Judaic passage with verbal ties to the Judah story in ch. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.
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