Odo had once become the second most powerful man in England but he had fallen out of favour with William I and only received forgiveness when the Conqueror was on his deathbed. William remained loyal to his father during his brother Robert’s rebellion of 1078 CE. He prevented the dissolution of political ties between England and Normandy, but his strong-armed rule earned him a reputation as a brutal, corrupt tyrant. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. A third brother, Henry, received cash instead of lands. At the time, the incident was regarded as an accident and Tirel was not punished for his part in the tragedy. In 1091 he compelled King Malcolm III of Scotland to acknowledge his overlordship. Matilda would be crowned the Queen of England in Westminster Abbey on 11 May 1068 CE. These family troubles were not good for the kingdoms of either England or Normandy but they were good news for William Rufus who was now his father’s favourite and most likely successor. Richard had died around 1075 while hunting in the New Forest. William’s hot temper, sarcastic wit, and short physique seemed to have cost him a favourable portrayal in most history books where he often appears as a roistering good-time Charlie who was rather too fond of wine and the results of his passion for hunting. Omissions? The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Shortly before his death, William I bequeathed his inheritance among his sons in accordance with feudal custom. by AwesomeStories.com (Copyright, fair use). Great Seal of William II of Englandby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). In what year was the Magna Carta first granted? Finally, in an interesting footnote, the tower under which William Rufus was buried in Winchester Cathedral collapsed in 1107 CE, another indicator, the pious medieval chroniclers pointed out, of God’s wrath on a pagan king who did not take care to exercise his divine right for the good of his people. In 1095, a second baronial revolt broke out against William Rufus, led by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northuberland. Afterwards, he laid claim to Normandy and waged war against Robert, and also seized lands from his younger brother, Henry. He was the third of four sons born to William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, the eldest being Robert Curthose, the second Richard, and the youngest Henry. He was crowned the King by Lanfranc, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in September 1087. This time William punished the ringleaders with such brutality that no barons dared to challenge his authority thereafter. William had supported the latter pair with an army, which allowed them to dethrone their uncle. In a typical episode of financial opportunism, Flambard used the occasion to fine nobles left right and centre and so bring yet more money into the state treasury. William was one of four brothers, and it was the eld… William II, byname William Rufus, French Guillaume Le Roux, (born c. 1056—died August 2, 1100, near Lyndhurst, Hampshire, England), son of William I the Conqueror and king of England from 1087 to 1100; he was also de facto duke of Normandy (as William III) from 1096 to 1100. They even charged William with being a pagan and spreader of witchcraft. "William II of England." Born in Normandy around 1056, William II or William Rufus, so named after his ruddy complexion, was the second surviving and the favorite son of William I. Shortly after inheriting the English throne, William II faced a baronial uprising to overthrow him in favor of his elder brother, Robert. They waged a revolt, known as the ‘Rebellion of 1088’, against William Rufus in favor of his elder brother, Robert, now Duke of Normandy. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. William Rufus was killed while hunting on August 2, 1100 in the New Forest in Hampshire, probably near Brockenhurst. Rufus was also accused of being a homosexual, significantly, a charge only declared after his death, and really the only evidence he might have been is that he did not marry, hardly a conclusive point. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Thus, on 6 August 1100 CE, Henry I of England was crowned in Westminster Abbey. Robert remained ambitious, though, and he sided with the enemy against his father at the siege of Mantes in 1087 CE. That victory would inspire him to try and complete the conquest of Wales when he became king. Consequently, a second baronial revolt, led by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, broke out in 1095. However, King William received strong support from most Normans in England who remained loyal to him and his army successfully attacked the rebel strongholds at Tonbridge, Pevensey and Rochester. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Rufus immediately won the native English to his side by pledging to cut taxes and institute efficient government. The king would defeat his brother Robert (back from the Crusade) at Tinchebrai in Normandy in 1106 and go on to rule his unified kingdom of Normandy and England with some success until 1135 CE. In accordance with feudal custom, William I bequeathed his inheritance, the Duchy of Normandy, to his eldest son, Robert II Curthose; England, William’s kingdom by conquest, was given to Rufus. Nevertheless, many Norman barons in England wanted England and Normandy to remain under one ruler, and shortly after Rufus succeeded to the throne, they conspired to overthrow him in favour of Robert. Thereafter, Rufus maintained the Scottish kings as vassals, and in 1097 he subjugated Wales. William’s wild lifestyle soon upset figures in the Church, a situation not at all helped by the king’s avoidance of appointing new bishops.
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